Pyrometric cones: Kiln temperatures for firing pottery

January 13, 2022


Kiln cones are geometrically shaped ceramic items of varying compositions designed to measure kiln temperatures. The different compositions are labeled from 022 to 10. The cone composition is used to measure heat absorption in a kiln.

pyrometric-cones
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To learn what cones are and how to use this, be sure to read our blog “What does cone mean in ceramics?

A range of pyrometric cones are used since different ceramics bodies require different heat treatments. This resource includes a kiln firing chart in Fahrenheit and Celsius.

Cone temperature chart in Fahrenheit

ConeKiln at 27°F/HourKiln at 108°F/HourKiln at 270°F/Hour
0221049°1087°1094°
0211076°1112°1143°
0201125°1159°1180°
0191213°1252°1283°
0181267°1319°1353°
0171301°1360°1405°
0161368°1422°1465°
0151382°1456°1504°
0141395°1485°1540°
0131485°1539°1582°
0121549°1582°1620°
0111575°1607°1641°
0101636°1657°1679°
091665°1688°1706°
081692°1728°1753°
071764°1789°1809°
061798°1828°1855°
05-1/21839°1859°1877°
051870°1888°1911°
041915°1945°1971°
031960°1987°2019°
021972°2016°2052°
011999°2046°2080°
12028°2079°2109°
22034°2088°2127°
32039°2106°2138°
42086°2124°2161°
52118°2167°2205°
5-1/22133°2197°2237°
62165°2232°2269°
72194°2262°2295°
82212°2280°2320°
92235°2300°2336°
102284°2345°2381°
This is a table describing cone temperatures in Fahrenheit.

Cone temperature chart in Celsius

ConeKiln at 15°C/HourKiln at 60°C/HourKiln at 150°C/Hour
022565°586°590°
021586°600°617°
020607°626°638°
019656°678°695°
018686°715°734°
017705°738°763°
016742°772°796°
015750°791°818°
014757°807°838°
013807°837°861°
012843°861°882°
011857°875°894°
010891°903°915°
09907°920°930°
08922°942°956°
07962°976°987°
06981°998°1013°
05-1/21004°10151025°
051021°1031°1044°
041046°1063°1077°
031071°1086°1104°
021078°1102°1122°
011093°1119°1138°
11109°1137°1154°
21112°1142°1164°
31115°1152°1170°
41141°1162°1183°
51159°1186°1207°
5-1/21167°1203°1225°
61185°1222°1243°
71201°1239°1257°
81211°1249°1271°
91224°1260°1280°
101251°1285°1305°
This is a table describing cone temperatures in Celsius.

Very low kiln cone temperature ranges

The following cones (022 to 011) are in a “very low” firing range. The temperature range is 1049°F – 1641°F.

This range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Cone 022 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 022 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 022 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1049°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1087°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1094°

Kiln cone 022 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 565°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 586°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 590°

Cone 021 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 021 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 021 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1076°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1112°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1143°

Kiln cone 021 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 586°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 600°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 617°

Cone 020 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 020 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 020 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1125°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1159°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1180°

Kiln cone 020 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 607°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 626°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 638°

Cone 019 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 019 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 019 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1213°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1252°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1283°

Kiln cone 019 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 656°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 678°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 695°

Cone 018 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 018 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 018 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1267°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1319°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1353°

Kiln cone 018 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 686°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 715°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 734°

Cone 017 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 017 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 017 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1301°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1360°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1405°

Kiln cone 017 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 705°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 738°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 763°

Cone 016 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 016 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 016 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1368°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1422°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1465°

Kiln cone 016 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 742°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 772°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 796°

Cone 015 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 015 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 015 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1382°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1456°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1504°

Kiln cone 015 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 750°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 791°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 818°

Cone 014 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 014 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 014 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1395°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1485°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1540°

Kiln cone 014 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 757°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 807°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 838°

Cone 013 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 013 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 013 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1485°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1539°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1582°

Kiln cone 013 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 807°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 837°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 861°

Cone 012 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 012 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 012 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1549°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1582°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1620°

Kiln cone 012 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 843°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 861°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 882°

Cone 011 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 011 temps is considered a “very low” firing range. The “very low” firing range is most commonly used in firing enamels, decals, and overglaze decorations.

Kiln cone 011 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1575°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1607°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1641°

Kiln cone 011 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 857°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 875°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 894°

Low fire kiln cone temperature ranges

The following cones (010 to 02) are in a “low” firing range. The temperature range is 1636° – 2138°.

This range is most commonly used in bisque firing (one of the stages of clay) and firing some glazes.

Cone 010 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 010 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 010 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1636°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1657°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1679°

Kiln cone 010 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 891°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 903°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 915°

Cone 09 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 09 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 09 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1665°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1688°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1706°

Kiln cone 09 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 907°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 920°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 930°

Cone 08 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 08 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 08 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1692°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1728°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1753°

Kiln cone 08 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 922°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 942°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 956°

Cone 07 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 07 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 07 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1764°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1789°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1809°

Kiln cone 07 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 962°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 976°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 987°

Cone 06 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 06 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 06 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1798°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1828°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1855°

Kiln cone 06 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 981°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 998°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1013°

Cone 05-1/2 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 05-1/2 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 05-1/2 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1839°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1859°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1877°

Kiln cone 05-1/2 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1004°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1015°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1025°

Cone 05 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 05 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 05 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1870°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1888°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1911°

Kiln cone 05 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1021°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1031°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1044°

Cone 04 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 04 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 04 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1915°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1945°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 1971°

Kiln cone 04 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1046°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1063°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1077°

Cone 03 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 03 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 03 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1960°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 1987°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2019°

Kiln cone 03 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1071°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1086°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1104°

Cone 02 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 02 temps is considered a “low” firing range. The “low” firing range is most commonly used in bisque firing and firing some glazes.

Kiln cone 02 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1972°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2016°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2052°

Kiln cone 02 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1078°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1102°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1122°

Low-mid fire kiln cone temperature ranges

The following cones (01 to 3) are in a “low-mid” firing range. The temperature range is 1999° – 2052°.

This range is most commonly used in firing many glazes. Some clay types like terracotta become durable.

Cone 01 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 01 temps is considered a “low-mid” firing range. The “low-mid” firing range is used in firing many glazes. Some clay types like terracotta become durable at kiln temperatures.

Kiln cone 01 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 1999°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2046°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2080°

Kiln cone 01 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1093°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1119°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1138°

Cone 1 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 01 temps is considered a “low-mid” firing range.

Cone 01 temperature is typically where low-fire clays become durable or structural vessels. For instance, terracotta clay turns from red to brown and becomes nonporous at cone 1 temps. The cone 1 temperature range does not typically result in a glass or gloss-like finish.

Kiln cone 1 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2028°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2079°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2109°

Kiln cone 1 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1109°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1137°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1154°

Cone 2 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 2 temps is considered a “low-mid” firing range. The “low-mid” firing range is used in firing many glazes. Some clay types like terracotta become durable at kiln temperatures.

Kiln cone 2 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2034°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2088°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2127°

Kiln cone 2 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1112°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1142°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1164°

Cone 3 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 3 temps is considered a “low-mid” firing range. The “low-mid” firing range is used in firing many glazes. Some clay types like terracotta become durable at kiln temperatures.

Kiln cone 3 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2039°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2106°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2138°

Kiln cone 3 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1115°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1152°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1170°

Mid fire kiln cone temperature ranges

The following cones (4 to 7) are in a “mid” firing range. The temperature range is 1999° – 2052°.

This is the most common range for potters to do a final glaze firing. Your finished pieces in most stoneware, earthenware, and porcelain will be fired in this range.

Cone 4 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 4 temps is considered a “mid” firing range. The “mid” firing range is the most common range for potters to do a final glaze firing. A potter’s finished pieces will be fired in this range.

Kiln cone 4 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2086°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2124°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2161°

Kiln cone 4 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1141°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1162°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1183°

Cone 5 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 3 temps is considered a “mid” firing range. The “mid” firing range is the most common range for potters to do a final glaze firing. A potter’s finished pieces will be fired in this range.

Kiln cone 5 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2118°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2167°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2205°

Kiln cone 5 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1159°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1186°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1207°

Cone 5-1/2 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 5-1/2 temps is considered a “mid” firing range. The “mid” firing range is the most common range for potters to do a final glaze firing. A potter’s finished pieces will be fired in this range.

Kiln cone 5-1/2 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2133°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2197°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2237°

Kiln cone 5-1/2 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1167°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1203°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1225°

Cone 6 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 6 temps is considered a “mid” firing range. The “mid” firing range is the most common range for potters to do a final glaze firing. A potter’s finished pieces will be fired in this range.

Kiln cone 6 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2165°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2232°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2269°

Kiln cone 6 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1185°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1222°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1243°

Cone 7 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 7 temps is considered a “mid” firing range. The “mid” firing range is the most common range for potters to do a final glaze firing. A potter’s finished pieces will be fired in this range.

Kiln cone 7 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2194°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2262°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2295°

Kiln cone 7 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1201°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1239°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1257°

High fire kiln cone temperature ranges

The following cones (8 and higher) are in a “high” firing range. The temperature range is 1999° – 2052°.

In high heat, glazes go through a reduction process. The reduction process can change the texture of the clay, typically by making it more glass-like (vitreous).

This range is also commonly used in industrial firing. Think ceramic parts for your car or toilets. These items need to be fired at incredibly high temperatures. Either most commonplace kilns or their power sources can’t reach cone ranges above 10.

Cone 8 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 8 temps is considered a “high” firing range. The “high” firing range results in a glaze reduction process. This can change the texture of your glaze resulting in a more glass-like surface. “High” firing ranges are also the most common range for industrial use (toilets, car parts, etc).

Kiln cone 8 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2212°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2280°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2320°

Kiln cone 8 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1211°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1249°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1271°

Cone 9 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 9 temps is considered a “high” firing range. The “high” firing range results in a glaze reduction process. This can change the texture of your glaze resulting in a more glass-like surface. “High” firing ranges are also the most common range for industrial use (toilets, car parts, etc).

Kiln cone 9 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2235°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2300°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2336°

Kiln cone 9 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1224°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1260°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1280°

Cone 10 temperatures

Kiln firing at cone 10 temps is considered a “high” firing range. The “high” firing range results in a glaze reduction process. This can change the texture of your glaze resulting in a more glass-like surface. “High” firing ranges are also the most common range for industrial use (toilets, car parts, etc).

Kiln cone 10 ranges in Fahrenheit

  • Kiln at 27°F/Hour: 2284°
  • Kiln at 108°F/Hour: 2345°
  • Kiln at 270°F/Hour: 2381°

Kiln cone 10 ranges in Celsius

  • Kiln at 15°C/Hour: 1251°
  • Kiln at 60°C/Hour: 1285°
  • Kiln at 150°C/Hour: 1305°
Kristen-in-italy

About The Author

Hi, I'm Kristen! I've been making ceramics for almost 15 years. As a certified teacher, I taught kindergarten through 8th grade for almost a decade. I’m now regularly in my neighborhood studio where I’m trying out new things and getting better at the craft!

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